tv Fox News Reporting FOX News November 28, 2010 9:00pm-10:00pm EST
>> government is not the solution to our problem. government is the problem. >> reagan was the real thing. some people grasp on this or that but not reagan. >> it won't contain communism it will transcend communism. >> people look at the cold war we kind of agreed on that. no we didn't all agree on that.
the dirty secret is the country club blue blood rockefeller types never blamed reagan. republicans were pleading with reagan to raise taxes again. >> it became clear many things occurring weren't in the script. >> i was shocked. he was furious. >> he said i know what i believe and i dw i don't need to be tol. >> reagan said stay the course. >> i asked myself what would john wayne have done? >> in a presociety one of the most difficult things is to persevere. god bless ronald reagan for persevering. >> hello and welcome to the 4th hour of the fox news series "the right all along: the rise fall and future of conservatism." it brit hume. conservatives rebuilt their movement in 85.
reagan launched a challenge against gerald ford in 76 but was short. they elected jimmy carter as president. maleas marked by economic crisis at home soviet adventurism abroad and a humiliating hostage crisis in iran. conservatives regrouped and in 1980 reagan crushed carter in a landslide. like that everything seemed to change. iran would free the hostages 20 minutes after reagan delivered his inaugural address an address that focused almost exclusively on reagan's first order of business fixing the nation's damaged economy. >> these united states are confronted with an economic affliction of great proportions. idol industries cast workers into one employment, human misery and personal indignity. >> when we took office january 20th, 1981 the prime interest rate was 21 and a half percent.
18 percent mortgage rates. can you comprehend what the u.s. would look like today? this was a system there was collapsing before our very eyes. oo oo we have piled deficit upon deficit mortgaging our future and our children's future for the temporary convenience of the present. >> there was a perception the economic policy was broken and the public would respond to something that was fundamentally different. >> in this present crisis government is not the solution to our problem. government is the problem. >> this is a guy who actually had a degree in economics earned prior to the general period which was in 1936 by lord john mayer kings which provided the rationale for big government liberals to have a bigger hand in controlling the way the economy would grow out. they thought the government would guide the economy no need to have recessions or
depressions or bubbly booms be nice and even with these wise people but the leaves of government. >> reagan's economic advisors were a new breed including milton friedman the noble laureate alan greenspan and martin henderson. arthur laffer. >> we have four general areas of policy the one everyone focuses on low rate flat taxes our second policy with sound money the value of the dollar the third area which was free trade and the 4th area incomes policies. these were the indirect ways government can effect businesses regulations or minimum wage, union activity. all four equally important. you can't have a healthy economy with any one of those out of kilter. >> one of the promises was 25 percent across the board income tax rate cut. despite his landslide win few
thought he could deliver it. >> had he a house of representatives which were democratic a liberal old line liberal tip o'neil. he had to convince 40 to 50 democrats to come with him. >> something not remembered now by the end of march the tax plan reaped trouble. democrats are determined to block it. >> on march 30th, 1981 john hinkley junior fired off 6 shots as president reagan left the hilton hotel in washington. 3 others were wounded one of the bullets rick shade off the presidential limousine entering reagan's body under his left arm. it lodged in his lung less than an inch from his heart. >> much more severely injured than we realized at the time. he forced himself to get out of the car and walk into the hospital so that people would see the country still had a
president. >> that assassination attempt was a terrible blessing in a way. reagan's behavior under fire was cracking jokes, being wielded into the operating room are there any democrats in here. this really impressed the american public. >> how are you feeling mr. president? >> how do you feel? >> it established a view of him as the american mind that he was a man of grace and courage and it became impossible after that to dismiss him as the kind of light weight hollywood head and this is a man of kwaurlt, real quality. people could see that. as a result i think it altered history. >> mr. speaker, the president of the you sdats. >> reagan really exploited politically the sentiment of the country including appearing before congress a few months later where he said thank you for all of your kind wishes and let's get down to business in a
very tough speech. >> i have come to speak to you tonight about our economic recovery program. it is essential we approve this package. >> that speak changed the dynamic things moved rapidly after that. >> the house of representatives will begin debate on two tax bills. once again they need to hear from you. >> reagan was that unique communicator that was able to go over the heads of state run media of the day. communicate right to the american people. >> the committee bill offers a 15 percent cut over two years. our by partisan bill is 25 percent reduction over three years. >> i recall one meeting, i wasn't there but it was a meeting between tip o'neil and ronald reagan. when tip came out he said boy i was impressed. for tip to admit that makes the message republicans have to get in line. >> aye's 238, the nays are 195.
>> no hard feelings old pal. never figured they could beat us that badly. >> it was a victory within days required a reassessment of where we were going because all of the numbers were changing so rapidly. >> i am told that the night we passed the big reagan tax cut the director of the budget dave stockman sat in a car and talk to do me about how to recapture the revenue by incrementally raising taxes. >> we did have meetings not that hour but in august addressing the question of what we were going to do with the mass i have deficits that suddenly developed in the projections. >> you had this permanent tension between a moderate conservatism and a reagan conservatism. these guys wanted to manage the establishment on the right they wanted to create a new. >> after the tax break taxes you
wondered how tough the guy really is. within a few weeks we learned a lesson. that's when the nation's air traffic controllers threatened to go on strike. they wavenlted huge -- wanted huge raises at a time when he had budget problems. >> a group of air traffic controllers were deeply in this thing. i kept telling the traffic controllers terrific strategy if carter had gotten re-elected. they are going to be fired. >> they are in violation of the law and if they do not report to work within 48-hours they have forfeited their jobs and will be pe -- terminated. >> they bluffed he called their bluff, boom. >> i am going to leave the questions for you. >> the repercussions were felt far beyond america's borders. >> bill casey director of the cia told me there was more signal traffic from the embassy in washington over that incident
then there had been in history. >> this is a new kind of leader here. >> firing the air traffic controllers was a major step in the cold war convincing the soviets that reagan was no pansy. >> as the soviets would soon find out there was a lot more to come. ♪ [ man ] i thought o family business would always be boots. until one day, my daughter showed me a designer handbag.
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>> i know of no leader of the soviet union who has not repeated their goal must be the promotion of world revolution and they reserve unto themselves the right to commit any crime, to lie, to cheat in order to attain that. >> i would like to tell you during the cold war. yes, sir. we win and they lose. what do you think about that? oo the west won't contain communism. it will transcend communism. >> reagan had a deep visceral contempt for all of the evil empire he considered it to be flimsy, considered it to be finite. he knew in his gut that it was going to self destruct. all that was necessary to make it destruct was to be aggressive, i am plaqueable in the hostility toward communism.
>> i wrote a memo it told him how weak it is and how it can be wrote back. he wrote on the back he was surrounded by a lot of people. who didn't share that. >> let me tell you since 1917, 15 countries, 18 countries whatever it was had gone from capitalism to futilism to communism. no country had gone from communism to capitalism. not one. oh, thank you. that's very interesting. >> where others saw increasing soviet strength, reagan saw weakness and he intended to exploit it. he saw his best chance in eastern europe where on december 13th, 1981 the soviet controlled polish government declared martial law attempting to crush the solidarity labor union. >> if the outrages in poland do not cease make no mistake their
crime will cost them dearly in their feature dealings in america and free people every where. >> reagan realized this was an opportunity. he said this may never come again in our lifetime. it's a sign of weakness not of strength. we need to press on it. >> wasn'ted to bring down communism. he thought solidarity in poland was a way of doing it a peaceful way of doing it. >> what i am describing now is a plan and hope for the long-term. march of freedom and democracy which will leave marksism, leninism in history -- >> when he made his announcement marksism is history people in magulag passed this message from cell to cell saying someone understands us, there's someone who is coming to our aid. >> in an eye ronic sense karl marx was right we are witnessing today a great revolutionary crisis. >> westminster speech passed that marx was right, marx not
capitalism the price of the soviet union and communists. >> it is the soviet union that runs against the tied of history by denying human freedom. >> he predicts the collapse of communism. that infuriated people of the system he understood it. >> back home some advisors were losing confidence in his economic program despite the tax rate cuts he won in 81, 82 called the worst since the great depression. >> economic developments unfolded month by month it became clear that many things were occurring weren't in the script. >> the president's numbers started going south and our political enemies were blaming reagan om micks for the bad state of the economy. >> reagan stood back as paul volger kept national rates above 20 percent in an effort to force down inflagsz which rocketed
under carter and peak at 14 percent in 1981. >> the situation in 1981, 82 was clearly due to the fact that the economy was being put through the ringer by a tough monetary policy by vulgar hacking into the fevers head on. unemployment rose the country had never seen deficits of this manage tude. >> i was the treasury department and we watched what kinds of pressures reagan was under. republicans were coming and pleading with reagan to raise taxes again. >> 1982 was really bad. we were being attacked by bush, dole and by baker to rescind the third year of the tax cut. >> howard baker said this was a river boat gamble. why was it a river boat gamble. it was a river boat gamble because nobody actually had a theory which explained all of this except arthur laffer a few of his followers in the treasury
department. there were very few mainstream economists who were willing to sign onto the idea that if you cut taxes, even when there was a deficit, the economy would recover. >> we didn't cut taxes, we cut tax rates. the lower rates the lower tax rates caused revenues to go up that is the essence of the laffer curve. >> if you wanted to see reagan lose his temper, just talk to him about maybe raising taxes a little bit. he did it one time when everybody in the white house felt it needed to be done because of the deficit problem including nancy but he sure didn't like it. >> even that tax hike with reagan signed in 1982 was ultimately a victory for the supply sider sz because reagan refused to center the center piece of his economic program that cuts individual income tax rates he won the year before. he agreed to more modest
increases hikes in the unemployment tax taxes on cigarettes and phones and fewer deductions for businesses. >> it was really a close call in my mind after the president stuck firm thank god. >> single most courageous moment a presidential experience that i watched up close if my adult lifetime when reagan said stay the course. >> that was exactly the expression used by reagan, stay the course. by late 1983 the economy was growing. unemployment rate was falling, inflation rate was falling. interest rates were falling. the economy was coming back to help. reaganomics was a triumph. supply side economics was a triumph cutting taxes even in the death of the deficit to get the economy moving that was reaganism. it did work. >> reagan would have to stay the course again on the biggest threat facing the planet nuclear
>> this is the nuclear freeze campaign. demonstrations like this have been held all over the free world. >> 96 was the year for the end of the cold war. one of the things he had to deal with was the nuclear freeze movement. why don't we get them to freeze what they have and stop the trade. >> he went to the national association of evangelicals in early march where he made the famous evil empire speech. >> the temptation of lively declaring yourselves above it all. label both sides equally owe cult to i go ner the facts of history and aggressive impulses of an evil empire to call the
arms race a giant misunderstanding and there by remove yourself from the struggle of right and wrong and good and evil. >> two and a half weeks later reagan bucked the nuclear freeze movement to go one step further. he proposed to make nuclear weapons obsolete by inventing a high-tech missile defense shield. he called it the strategic defense initiative or sdi critics called it star wars. the proposal aimed to scrap america's decade old deterrent strategy of destruction. >> the human spirit must be capable of rising above other nations and human beings by threatening their existence. >> the dirty secret was he was a nuclear abolitions. we thought he was o hawk like t rest of us he was a hawk like the rest of us except for one thing he wanted to see theable ligs the removal of all nike layer weapop -- nuclear weapons.
>> we hold a promise of changing the course of history there will be risks and result the take time. but i believe we can do it. >> reagan took less time to confront communism on the battlefield and america's backyard. in october 25th 1983 he sent in troops to rescue american medical students attending school on the tiny island of grenada. they ousted the marxist government in the process. >> it was a soviet cuban colony being readied as a major bass onto exporter tore and undermine democracy. we got there just in time. >> i said sir, how did you make the decision to commit u.s. troops to grenada. how did you do it? he looks at me. well, art, i just asked myself, what would john wayne have done. (laughter) >> it's the first time we have ever captured a communist government. we have a vivid understanding they actually believe this
stuff. it's a wonderful story. you have an african descendant caribbean nation in the tropics in deep economic trouble and every tuesday they are meeting to reach and spending two hours discussing what would chairman stalin have done. it was absurd but it was real. >> that same week on the other side of the world reagan got a brutal lesson from other ideological committed enemy. a growing threat one day would be seen by conservatives as on horror with communisms. >> the low point of the communism add miststration was when terrorists bombed in beirut and we lost the 243 marines. i thought to myself there's a new form of warfare. >> i was the middle east on board for president reagan during that period. it was a very early indication for americans that a terrorist can attack at any place at any time using any technique.
>> we did have a decision from him to retaliate but i don't think we did enough. >> bhonts the marines withdrew from lebanon. >> the intelligence received over time indicated that os birbin laden felt because of our behavior in lebanon the united states was a paper tiger to the extent that we had our nose bloodied in some place that we would withdraw. that's a risky message for our country. hey, guys, i know i've been bad at this in the past,
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offices of the west wing of the white house what "people" magazine is to your dentist waiting. >> it w there was an affinity o ideas. it ran pretty close. >> they will tell the story about become on vacation with ronald reagan. they are discussing something about inflation rate and monetary policy and still went to bed and waking up the next morning and there were ten handwritten pages shoved under the door from reagan about this obscure public policy issue explaining his views in more depth. >> nobody is fulfillment of a dream but i think reagan came very close. >> since the 1950s bill buck leap had more ideas about liberalism. in the 80d he would be joined by a new kind of conservative. researchers found hard i am peer cal evidence of the failures of big government programs. >> it represented a new kind of
voice. bill buckley had been doing a great job for a couple of decades on making the conservative case philosophically. the impurists got involved in the 1980s and i think it helped things along. >> the impurists studied lbj's society to help quantify the real world effects. what they discovered was many of the liberal policies ended up hurting the very people they were meant to help. >> it was hugely important because you could go to the congress with the day and say here it is. you could now give a reasoned argument you could provide the data, you could provide the evidence. >> the social scientist work made many paw rye awes and ak dem ma. they joined a growing number of conservative think tanks. at the manhattan institute they found when police ignore low level offenses more serious crime flourishes. hoover institution sold the research questioning if
affirmative action was helping black americans. in 1984 charles murray manhattan institute published losing ground showed welfare was not giving the poor a leg up and putting them two steps behind. >> i was evaluating social programs and none of them worked. >> what we did unintentionally was create all sorts of new incentive systems which said here is a short term reward for behaving in a certain kind of way, oh, and by the way we aren't going to mention if you behavior this way in the short term especially when you are young you are completely screwed by the time you are 30-35 years old. >> charles murray spoke losing ground hearing of my gracious ideal liberalism was left of center democrat and group of evidence came in and the program aliens trillions of dollars actually made things worse. well it wasn't hard to then become a conservative and see the market oriented solutions
are the way to go. >> that made of course the liberals unhappy but it made conservatives unhappy. >> murrays came along that fundment tally challenged an ideal level they didn't want to hear about it. they were assaulted by politics. people were being thrown into the streets and so forth. >> did he not vote to assault the poor and the sick and the disabled. you did not vote to trash the civil rights laws. you did not vote for $200 billion deficits. >> walter mondale 1984 democratic nominee pointed to one over riding cause of the nation's ills, reagan's tax kutsz. >> mr. reagan will raise taxes and so will i. he won't tell you.
i just did. >> the difference between two presidential candidates had rarely been so stark. reagan won in a landslide. >> i think that's just been arranged. >> despite mondale's claim to secretly raise taxes reagan searched to lower rates even further. i have one thing to say to the tax increases, go ahead, make my day. >> secretary of state used to be my economic advisor, you have any good ideas let me have them. i remember saying to them there is a fr something mr. president there are lots of special preferences for this family other than shots from the tax code. if you got rid of them and simplified the tax code and you
could also reduce the marginal rate of taxation. >> others including democrats bill bradley dick gephardt and dan woskinkowski had solutions. >> in 96 he brought the tax rate down to 28 percent which is unheard of. that was beyond the wildest dreams. >> that is our economic program for the next four years. we are going to turn the bull lose. >> turning the bull lose meant stick to go free market principles even while others panicked. october 1987 black monday the dow dropped 508 points, 22 percent of its value. reagan shrugged. >> i have no more knowledge of why it happened than you have. >> the stock market crash in 87 was almost identical to 1929
stock market crash. reagan should do something. reagan did absolutely nothing. after a brief adjustment the market recovered and we had 20 consecutive years of growth, of low inflation and low unemployment. >> one goal reagan would never achieve balancing the federal budget. deficits piled up on his watch. >> when it came to cutting welfare payments school lunches it was very hard. someone would say how can you cut their lunch? >> i think you are right on that. i will tell david we aren't going to do that one. that's the way it happened. >> he was unwilling to spend the political capit capital necessa make major change in the cost and size of government. the republican party never did resolve that issue satisfactorily. unfortunately it led to a perversion of the supply side ideas. >> mr. stockman looked to what
happened during the 1980s. even though national debt tripled to roughly 2.7 trillion the wealth of the nation in that decade went up $17 trillion. innovation came as never before. he realized we got the rest of the country going right we can survivor the fiscal stupidities. . awwwww. this one? this one? this one? still not big enough. [ disappointed ] but it's the biggest one here... [ male announcer ] let's be honest. no one ever wished r a smaller holiday gift. ♪ it's the lexus december to remember sales event, and for a limited time, we're celebrating some of our greatest offers of the year. see your lexus dealer
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>> by the time ronald reagan came to washington the supreme court was perhaps the most powerful agent of social change in america. state electoral bussed students to get home away from goals discover new rights to criminals banned organized prayer in public schools and roe versus wade de claviered the constitution contained the right to an abortion.
>> ronald reagan was very much concerned about the way in which the court had been operating in the 60s and 70s. i was, too. the court was actually making new law and they revolutionized the process. it wasn't a buddy, buddy system any more. it wasn't have you heard about this guy. the conservative effort was made to populate the courts to individuals look at what the founders intended at the time as oppose to do a personal policy reference. we had certain criteria for all judges whether they went on the courts of appeal or whether they went on supreme court. >> reagan administration did make a significant change. used to be regular tively rare to -- relatively rare to appoint a circuit court judge to supreme court. now they are all former judges. there's a sense that you learn a lot about what a supreme court justice is going to be like from
his or her lower court experience. that doesn't always work. >> 'tis first appointment was a big disappointment to sandra day o'connor. she was not a conservative. we tried to get it to him delineating how she voted wrong to many, many occasions and was not pro-life and so on. we couldn't get it to him. >> i was just shocked. i went with paul to have lunch with james baker who was then chief of staff of reagan to complain about o'connor and blaker assured me that she was a good woman for all seasons and she would work out fine. well, sheep didn't work out fine. >> he wanted to appoint the first woman justice he told us that right after she was elected he wanted that. >> i couldn't speak for reagan or ed means but from my point of view he was disappointed she was not faithful to the continues contusion. >> during her quarter century on
the court o'connor while conservative would never the less vote in favor of campaign finances restrictions affirmative action and abortion. conservative hads few problems with reagan's next pick. like o'connor skill lia was confirmed unanimously. when another seat opened up social conservatives believed they were one justice away from reversing the decision they despised most, roe versus wade. >> i spoke with reagan. he asked me who i would prefer. i said first and second and third choice robert bourque. >> judge bourque shares my views the personal preferences and values should not be a part of their constitutional interpretations. >> right after the nomination within 45 minutes teddy kennedy was on the floor of the senate denouncing me. >> robert bourque arebourque's a land in which women would be forced into back alley abortions
blacks were wo sit at segregated lunch counters they could breakdown doors in mid right raids and school children could not be taught about evolution. >> the truth the whole truth and nothing but the truth so help you god. >> everybody told me not to bother responding because i was so far over the top it would help me rather than hurt me. it was wrong because they kept it up so that after a while a lot of that stuff stuck. >> they turned what had always been a relatively dignified confirmation process into what is a political event almost a circ circus. >> it was a feeding frenzy. it became a verb, to bourque somebody. >> ultimately he filled the seat with anthony kennedy. kennedy often votes with the liberals on abortion and court cases. kennedy was conservative enough for them to claim he pushed it to the right. >> if you want to look at the success of a supreme court
nomination you have to ask who did they replace. all three were more conservative than predecessors and that made a major difference. >> coming up, ronald reagan's greatest try triumph after the break. the new healthcare law. jane: yea. most people will get free cancer screenings. and 50 percent off of brand name prescription drugs if you're in the donut hole. stella: you read my paper. jane: i went to medicare.gov. it's open enrollment, you know. so i checked out all the options and found a better plan to fit my budget. stella: well, you know what they say...knowledge... jane: knowledge is power.
>> on a saturday morning in august of 1984 in a california ranch he cracked a joke during his mic check. >> my fellow americans i am pleased to tell you today i have signed legislation that will outlaw russia forever and we begin bombing in 5 minutes. >> the left was horrified. >> many on the right worried for all of his tough talk about defeating communism reagan was
losing his nerve. >> i wrote an article very critical of his foreign policy in the new york times magazine. it was called the neo conservative anguish over reagan's foreign policy. he telephoned me telling me why he thought i was wrong about what he was up to. he said, look, their economy is in much worse thap shan mo -- sn most people know and i am going to bankrupt them. >> it wasn't just spending it was making their life as difficult as possible in afghanistan and nicaragua it was undermining their revenues from oil and natural gas. the things he did created the conditions in which a gorbachev could emerge and say we are in a mess we need to try something. >> mikhail gorbachev took power in 1985. compared to other soviet leaders he was young and ready to work
with the west. many of reagan's aids were worried. their boss now 74 years old go nose to notice with the 54-year-old gorbachev at the negotiation table. >> i remember him saying before the geneva summit these guys keep telling me things keep trying to brief me. i know what i believe and i don't need to be told. >> reagan had good intelligence that gorbachev understood their economy was dysfunctional and failing. we know gorbachev said as much we can't compete with the united states any more in the arms race and we have to tend. >> in the first summit he sa gorbachev i would guess th that percent of the soviet comments were about (indiscernible) >> do they realize fbi isn't a program it's presence of speech. >> he stuck to his guns refuse to do give up star wars. in october 1986 gorbachev made a
stunning offer proposing mass i have nuclear arms reductions. >> we thought the soviets were going to be howdy and hello and a photo op and all of a sudden we are there and they really want to deal very forcibly. i remember being the bubble in a secure room and reagan took out of his pocket a proposal that gorbachev had written down. we said holy cow. we met at 8:00 at night. we adjourned at 6:20 in the morning and i remember telling the president, mr. president we have accomplished more in terms of reducing nuclear weapons last night than we have in the 7 years of negotiations in geneva. >> gorbachev declared there would be no deal unless reagan agreed to give up sdi. >> gorbachev was willing to give up all of the nuclear weapons if reagan would give up sdi. ronald reagan said no i will never give that up. a lot of his advisors were out
there doom and gloom the need yaw said it was a disaster. >> he called me up said you have no idea how poor these people are. he penetrated and acted on it i think with superb leadership. >> reagan stood firm. as we now know as we look at it with hindsight it was where he won the cold war. >> reagan would first have to endure his darkest days in office. a month after returning home iran contra erupted. >> reagan had been untouchable until iran contra occurred. he was the teflon president until that occurred. it was something that could have ended the reagan presidency. >> in retrospect perhaps iran contra marks were the rising threat of radical islam with diminishing threat of soviet. john poindexter and oliver north
sold weapons in hopes of freeing american hostages in the middle east and used iran's money for trying to sell the over back country in government. >> i think it was a neat idea. >> trading arms for hostages was at the least violation of foreign policy. >> reagan survived it. when poindexter finally came to testify before congress he said he knew what north was doing but he never told reagan about it. that was the end of that. he might have been impeached if he knew about this diversion of funds. >> i don't think any politician is ever perfect but he certainly was right on a lot of the major issues. he was right on communism. he was right in believing that it's a game where we win and they lose. he was right in telling gorbachev to tear down this wall even though his people were xing it out of his speech. >> the berlin wall would spring up in the spring of 1961 divided germany in two turning it into a
soviet controlled prison. in the fall they wanted to make a simple bold statement at its base. many in the administration tried to stop him. >> general secretary gorbachev, if you seek peace. >> everybody is wondering is he going to say it it? they told him not to. you can't say it you don't want to embarrass the president of russia. >> mr. gorbachev, tear down this wall. (cheers) >> less than a year after president reagan left office it happened. >> i was coming to the bathroom when my wife was putting on lipstick and you wouldn't believe it. >> soon the whole soviet empire was collapsing. >> armies didn't march, planes didn't fire, guts weren't fired exactly as ronald reagan had said it would be done. >> pioneers of the conservative movement had been fighting for this moment for decades.
>> we thought one day conservatives would prevail. i didn't expect it to prevail in our time. i didn't expect the soviet union to collapse. we knew that school of thought maintained it there was wrong and false and devastating to mankind and the human race knew it. >> people look back on the cold war and say we were all kinds of agreed on that. bologna we didn't all agree on that. in a free society one of the most difficult things is to persevere. god bless ronald reagan for understanding what was going on for persevering. >> once we have a great movement there's no telling where it will end. we meant to change a nation instead we changed a world. >> as the soviet empire crumbled goesh chof received a letter from the man who's islamic revolution inadvertently helped bring reagan to power iran's ayatollah co main knee who predicted islam would nil the vacuum left by the collapse of
marxism. two presidents named bush would face that challenge. our story continues in 5 passing the torch. i am brit hume. thank you for watching. ♪ [ male announcer ] you know her. we know diamonds. together we'll make her holiday. that's why only zales is the diamond store. where you'll get an extra 10% off storewide now thru sunday.